A aliança da hidroxicloroquina: como líderes de extrema direita e pregadores da ciência alternativa se reuniram para promover uma droga milagrosa

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Resumo

Logo após a eclosão da pandemia da COVID-19, o mundo viu líderes de extrema direita se unindo para promover a hidroxicloroquina (HCQ), apesar de resultados controversos. Por que alguns líderes promoveram ativamente o remédio desde então, mesmo contradizendo recomendações de autoridades de saúde de seus próprios governos? Nosso argumento é duplo. Primeiro, a HCQ tem sido uma ferramenta integral do desempenho médico populista no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19. Adotamos a definição de Lasco e Curato (2018) de populismo médico como um estilo político performático durante crises de saúde pública que joga “o povo” contra “o sistema” usando alegações de conhecimento alternativo para lançar dúvidas sobre a credibilidade de médicos, cientistas e tecnocratas. Segundo, em vez de ser um esforço individual, o populismo médico diante da crise do coronavírus levou populistas a construir uma rede de ciência alternativa, definida como um movimento difuso de supostos buscadores da verdade que defendem publicamente suas convicções científicas em uma encruzilhada entre evidências parciais, pseudociência e teorias da conspiração. É composto por cientistas, empresários e celebridades unidos por sua desconfiança nos governos e na ciência convencional. Neste artigo, examinamos a formação da aliança da hidroxicloroquina, bem como suas implicações políticas e para as políticas públicas. Para tanto, comparamos por que e como Donald Trump e Jair Bolsonaro recorreram ao populismo médico performático ao abordar a crise de saúde. Ao mobilizar os conceitos de populismo médico e ciência alternativa, este artigo tem como objetivo contribuir para o estudo da relação entre política populista e formulação de políticas.

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Casarões, G., & Magalhães, D. (2021). A aliança da hidroxicloroquina: como líderes de extrema direita e pregadores da ciência alternativa se reuniram para promover uma droga milagrosa. Revista De Administração Pública, 55(1), 197–214. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220200556
Seção
Análise comparativa da COVID-19: liderança política, contexto, efetividade...

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