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América Latina na História Global: uma visão historiográfica

Diego Olstein

Resumo


A história mundial pode ser organizada em três grandes divergências regionais: a "Maior Divergência" a partir do final da última Era do Gelo (cerca de 15.000 anos atrás), que isolou o Velho e o Novo Mundo até 1500; a "Grande Divergência", bifurcando os caminhos da Europa e Afro-Ásia desde 1500; e a "Divergência Americana", que dividiu as fortunas das sociedades do Novo Mundo a partir de 1500. Assim, todas as regiões do mundo enfrentaram duas divergências: uma desassociando os destinos dos Mundos Velho e Novo, e a outra dentro do Velho ou do Novo Mundo. A América Latina encontra-se na difícil posição de, em ambas as divergências, terminar no "lado perdedor". Como resultado, uma historiografia contenciosa da América Latina desenvolve-se desde o momento em que foi incorporada a um mundo mais amplo. Desde então, emergiram e desenvolveram-se três atitudes básicas em relação ao lugar da América Latina na história global: admiração pelo grande impacto que o surgimento da América Latina no cenário mundial imprimiu na história global; Hostilidade e desprezo pela América Latina desde sua entrada no mundo; Rejeição e confrontação direta na reação ao cenário anterior. Este artigo examina cada uma dessas três atitudes em cinco períodos: o "longo século XVI" (1492-1650); A "era das crises" (1650-1780); "O longo século XIX" (1780-1914); "O curto século XX" (1914-1991); e a "globalização contemporânea" (1991 em diante).


Palavras-chave


História Global, América Latina, historiografia, Grande Divergência, globalização.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

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Revista Estudos Históricos
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