Further investigation of the uncertain trend in U.S. GDP
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The presence of deterministic or stochastic trend in U.S. GDP has been a continuing debate in the literature of macroeconomics. Ben-David and Papell (1995) found evindence in favor of trend stationarity using the secular sample of Maddison (1995). More recently, Murray and Nelson (2000) correctly criticized this nding arguing that the Maddison data are plagued with additive outliers (AO), which bias inference towards stationarity. Hence, they propose to set the secular sample aside and conduct inference using a more homogeneous but shorter time-span post-WWII sample. In this paper we re-visit the Maddison data by employing a test that is robust against AO s. Our results suggest the U.S. GDP can be modeled as a trend stationary process.