Education production efficiency: evidence from Brazilian universities
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The purpose of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of higher education institutions in Brazil with emphasis on its determinants, taking particularly into account the relative efficiency of public and private institutions on the application of their resources. The availability of scores in standardized tests for Brazilian universities helps a lot with this task since they provide a widely accepted output measure. The difference between the scores of last-year and first-year students in ENADE is used to measure performance. There exists an entrance exam in Brazilian universities where they can screen out their students. Therefore we believe that students' characteristics should be considered a non-discretionary input and consequently explain the output. This specification implies that public institutions are more inefficient than private ones. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.