A structuralist Philips curve
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This paper presents a structuralist model of the Philips curve and applies it to the US and Brazilian economies. The theoretical model starts from a simple markup rule to build a Philips curve based on the assumptions that firms have a desired rate of profit and wokers have a target real wage. Inflation expectations are modeled in terms of current inflation and the governments’ target, and the model shows that relative prices can have both a short-run and long-run influence on inflation. When applied to the US, the structuralist Philips curve results in a nonlinear model in which there are two steady states for inflation, and where the wageshare of income becomes the main instrument to drive inflation to the governments’ target. When applied to Brazil, the structuralist Philips curve reveals a nonlinear relationship between long-run inflation and the real exchange rate, so that the same inflation target can be consistent with more than one value of the exchange rate. The main conclusion of the paper is that a structuralist specification of the Philips curve is a useful instrument to model many macroeconomic topics as well as alternative theoretical closures.